Delivered as a paper at: Third International Conference on the Histories of Media Art, Science and Technology :Melbourne 26-29 November 2009

Delivered as a paper at: National de Mexico: World Forum For Acoustic Ecology , Mexico City 2009

Carla Teixeira: Recorded Sound Archivist, National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Level 1, 45 Murray Street, Pyrmont, Sydney. Australia. (61+ 2 8202 0109).

Title of Paper:

From Pre-wired to Wireless: The Re-sounding and Re-mapping of Acoustic Soundscapes in Urban and Rural Spaces by Contemporary Sonic Art Practitioners Down Under.


“The Great Australian Silence” was imposed upon the acoustic soundscape of Australia’s ancient territories by the domination of British imperialists in 1788. Coded mythology inherent in icons of Australia’s colonialisation and modernization, such as telegraph poles and fences, are being re-contextualised by contemporary Australian sonic art practitioners.

The sonic reverberations of Australia’s folklore, embedded in early radio culture, has been long replaced by the accelerated evolution and pervasiveness of new media technology, but here too, sonic practitioners are finding ways to re-integrate art and culture into communities by re-sounding architectural structures and public spaces.

The recent disappearance of verbal and vocal street dialogue has now been replaced by a reverberant hum, permeating the urban acoustic environment. The evolution of these acoustic soundscapes and the rise of industrial noise in cities, have been recorded and interpreted. These unconscious impressions of are treated as musical elements for synthesized audio compositions and multi-media sound installations.


The National Film and Sound Archive, (NFSA) is the treasure house of Australian audiovisual history. Our mission is to preserve Australia’s audiovisual culture for all to enjoy. With over a million items in the collection, the NFSA’s collection documents Australia’s rich cultural history. Making the collection accessible to all people is achieved in many ways – by supplying footage and recordings for use in television and radio productions, through regular screenings of some of Australia’s greatest films, through innovative exhibitions, traveling shows, live presentations, educational programs, video and audio products, and on the website.

In February 2007, The National Film and Sound Archive’s Recorded Sound Branch launched: Sounds of Australia, a public registry of recordings that celebrate the unique and diverse recorded sound culture and history of Australia. Each year, public nominations are called and 10 recordings are added to the Registry, selected from the nominations by a panel of experts from cultural institutions and the recorded sound industry.

The establishment of Sounds of Australia sparked a national discourse on the iconic national and regional environmental sounds of Australia. With this new cultural mandate to explore Australia’s sonological, or non-human sounds, the NFSA now has plans to focus some resources on collecting, preserving and providing access to audiovisual works illustrating Australia’s sonology.

It was only natural that in examining its collecting priorities, The Recorded Sound Branch also identified a cultural imperative to articulate sound culture in its broadest terms, leading the team to investigate the spectrum of audio experience and its application to access and exhibition.

[GRAPH: Pie Chart of NFSA Recorded Sound Collections breakdown]

A breakdown of the NFSA Recorded Sound Collection primarily by genre illustrates the global evolution of audio culture largely in the form of music. Music is the ‘heavyweight’ in the history of audio culture and that is certainly reflected in NFSA’s relative holdings of music to other forms of audio. Spoken word recordings and sonological recordings comprise a small percentage of the overall collection.

A substantial percentage of the NFSA’s collection, are radio broadcasts, dating back to early broadcasts of 1930. Radio content spans both music and spoken word recordings lending to the collection a valuable resource of live performances, historical documentation of the evolving soundscape and actuality recordings marking historic news and capturing significant cultural figures.

So this ‘picture’ of the Recorded Sound Branch’s holdings and new strategic directions gives you a very broad idea of the work we are doing.

Today I am going to speak primarily about four of Australia’s most significant Contemporary Sonic Art Practitioners: Rik Rue, Jon Rose, Alan Lamb and Nigel Helyer and I’m going to talk about some of the projects which these artists have undertaken, which are key sonic works in Australian sound culture.

These artists are re-contextualising Australian history and culture through the investigation of soundscapes in rural and urban spaces. These explorations into technology, mythology, folklore, and iconicised symbols are revealed through a variety of sonic forms. Some of the history they are re-telling was lost, and some of it was never told.


“What is history? An echo of the past in the future; A reflex from the future on the past.” These words were written by French novelist Victor Hugo over two hundred years ago.1

The history of Australia’s rural soundscape is inextricably linked to Europe’s industrial revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This was a time when the mechanization of agriculture, manufacturing and transportation had a profound impact on the sonic and spatial awareness of humankind. Thomas Hardy’s, 1891 novel, Tess of The Durbervilles, describes a British countryside resounding with the roar of machinery. As so did other writers of his time.

Murray Schafer’s book: The Tuning The World: offers us a list of “some of the more outstanding eighteenth century inventions which he wrote: “would allow the imaginative reader to overhear the changes in the soundscape.” 2

[Show list as power point slide]

His list includes the earliest form of optical telegraph, a French invention, appearing in 1793, to communicate messages in code, over long distances, using flags and pulley systems.

It wasn’t until 1844 that American Samuel Morse, with funds from the US Congress, constructed the world’s first telegraph lines, to convey morse code, using pulses of electrical currents, from Washington to Baltimore. Originally the wire was to be layed underground, but a third of the way through the project Morse realized the wire being layed was of poor quality and in a desperate move to meet the project deadline, he decided to hastily save the project with a new plan to tie the wires to trees and poles.

As early as the 6BC people had been making Aeolian Harps: stringed instruments played only by the wind. Their special quality being that they are the only stringed instrument whose tones are entirely harmonic, giving them a resonance, which can’t be heard in other forms of music.

The first telegraph poles by some accident of technology, became the earliest overland aeolian harps. Gradually, as the telegraph wires were linked to Europe and later, Australia, the experience of their harmonic reverberations became a shared global phenomenon. Indigenous peoples of Europe, America and Australia are said to have heard the sounds of the wires vibrating in the wind and thought them to be voices. 19th century novelist, Victor Hugo described the prairies of France as “an enormous wind harp, vibrating incessantly with the swarming hum of the telephone wires.” 3

Henry Thoreau regarded every sound as music. On one of his bush walks in 1851 he ‘went under the new telegraph wire and heard it vibrating high overhead’ 4. Appreciating that the wire was not designed to create music, he wrote: “ Thus as ever the finest uses of things are the accidental. Mr Morse did not invent this music”. 5 ‘“Thus an artificially created sound is paired with a natural force (being the wind) which produces or enhances the original sound.”’ 6. Thoreau was fascinated with the unpremeditated sounds of the environment and of nature.

Through his sound sculptures of large-scale Aeolian harps, Alan Lamb, like Thoreau, investigates the musicality of natural forces and the sound patterns created by chaos in nature as they interact with man made structures.

I’d like to show you some stills and audio of Alan Lamb’s Wired Lab project work, which he is currently working on with a team of other sound Artists in the Murray-Riverina region in New South Wales.

[Show stills with audio excerpt of Wired Lab: Riverina-Murray Project courtesy of Alan Lamb 1- 2 mins]

Whilst I have prefaced Lamb’s work with the evolution of Aeolian structures, it is not so much an intellectual relationship which Lamb himself has to his compositions with wire, but rather an emotional relationship to the sounds generated and a fascination for the aesthetic inherent in the sonic patterns emergent from the natural forces at play. Lamb also builds his own electronic devises, with which he manipulates the wires to create aural patterns.

His recordings are taken from structures located in many remote parts of the Australian landscape: including Perth and Freemantle in Western Australia, Campbeltown in New South Wales and Darwin in the Northern Territory.

We are going to listen now to a segment of a 29 minute composition, performed by Lamb in 1988. It is from his album Primal Image, and consists of contact microphone recordings of kilometer long spans of telegraph wire on twelve acres in rural Baldivis, south of Perth, purchased and constructed for that purpose.

[Play segment from Primal Image – Audio only – 3 mins]


Indigenous scholar Jane Belfrage focuses her MA thesis on: “The Great Australian Silence.” The term was coined in 1901 when the Bulletin Editor A.G. Stephens used the expression to “codify an Australian myth” that the Australian identity was born “in the silence of the bush”. 7 The political implication of this phrase is that Australia belonged to no-one it was ‘Terra Nullius – empty land.’ 8 Under Australian law the aborigines had never occupied the land and the Australian continent was claimed for the British throne. Of course, the bush was never silent, nor uninhabited. It was a native landscape filled with the songs and languages of 250 indigenous tribes.

Belfrage writes: ‘The invaders practice of knowledge devasted the Australian knowledge soundscape. Grievous silences were imposed as the indigenous peoples were killed and removed and forbidden by law to speak their languages: a silencing of the sounds of Australian knowledge’s. Utterers of English sounds colonized acoustic spaces as they “extended the frontiers”’. 9

Jon Rose, experimental violinist and instrument builder with partner Hollis Taylor, are re-mapping the knowledge soundscape, which Belfrage illuminates. Rose pioneered a sonic project spanning several years called: Fences Australia, which saw them both traversing the Australian continent to investigate the sonic and semiotic qualities of Australia’s great fences.

Rose is a classically trained violinist and an instrument builder. His fascination for deconstructing instruments began at the age of eight when in a carless moment of frustration at having to practice his violin for school, he accidentally smashed it into several pieces on his parent’s kitchen table. His father promptly glued the thing back together again and sent him to school the next day saying, “know one must know about this”. 10 This one incident was in fact the bedrock of Rose’s deconstructionist approach to music, design and history.

The State Barrier Fence of Western Australia, was first known as the No. 1 Rabbit-proof Fence, the State Vermin Fence and the Emu Fence. Constructed between 1901 and 1907 to keep rabbits and other agricultural pests out of Western Australia pastoral areas. 11

[Colour Map of Three Rabbit Proof fences]

There are three fences; the original No. 1 Fence, which crosses the state from north to south, the No. 2 Fence which is smaller and further west, and the smaller east-west running No. 3 fence. The fences took six years to build. Once completed in 1907, the Rabbit-Proof Fence (including all three fences) stretched 2021 miles.

In the book : Follow The Rabbit Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington, the fence was used in the 1930s by three Indigenous Australian girls for their route back home to JigalongThe girls taken from their parents in Western Australia as part of the Stolen Generation, escaped from the Moore River Settlement Mission where they were being held and walked back to their family at Jigalong by following the rabbit-proof fence. The book was made into a film in 2002. 12

Rose applies intellectual rigor in his sonic exploration of the fences, to reveal how the Australian landscape was changed forever by their construction: Nomadic indigenous tribes and their songlines, (or nomadic pathways), were impeded and migratory animals were disrupted. Children were taken from their parents and were ‘integrated’ into white society in a national regime of what can only be described as genocide.

While Alan Lamb is chiefly interested in exploring the accidental aesthetic of the wire in the natural landscape, Rose has a more structured musical approach to the wire. He plays the fence with his violin bow, and other objects such as found rocks, eliciting music from the fence posts and wires. Rose’s musicality of the fence also articulates their obscured history as integral to the extinction of Australian native peoples culture and the destruction of the natural ecology, imposed upon the landscape by British imperialism.

[Play DVD: Great Fences of Australia: Outback Performances: Jon Rose plays the southern end of the Rabbit- Proof Fence Post at starvation Bay, W.A. 2-3mins.]

[Colour Map of Dingo Fence]

The Dingo Fence or Dog Fence was built from 1880 to 1885, to keep dingoes out of the relatively fertile south-east part of Australia and protect the Southern Queensland sheep stock from predators. It is the world’s longest fence. When completed, it stretched 5,320 kilometers from Jimbour on the Darling Downs to the Eyre Peninsular on the Great Australian Bight. It was only partly successful; To this day, dingoes still exist in parts of the southern state. Although the fence helped reduce losses of sheep to dingoes, this was counterbalanced by increased pasture competition from rabbits and kangaroos. 13

[Illustration of stanza: First Grid at the Dog Fence p11 H.Taylor: Post Impressions, a travel book for tragic intellectuals]

In these stanzas we see Rose’s musical annotation of the soundscape of passing trucks over a wire grid made up of Dog fence mesh at the Dog Fence. “When the heavy trucks roll over,” – Taylor writes – “ the grid rings out like a symphonic gong. Jon records every truck for 20 minutes, and then performs a drum solo on the grid with sticks and brushes. Next, he plays the attached fence, which the grid amplifies as well. Farther down, we improvise a double bow solo on the dusty, barbed fence proper.” 14


Since the early 1980’s, Rik Rue has been composing with environmental and found sounds. His palate of sounds ranges from bush recordings to the noise of urban environments. One of Rues great influences has been Luigi Russollo a futurist, who said” Noise was not really born until the 19th century, he’s described the sounds of the iron foundries, textile mills, printing houses, power plants and subways as an orchestration. 15 Rue also based his work on the writings of Frenchman Victor Hugo, who writes about the infinite number of vocal variations and breadth of frequencies in the wind. These two philosophers became the counterpoint for Rue’s compositional journey into bio-acoustics and radiophonics.

In the context of A.G. Steven’s “Great Australian Silence”; Rue alerts us to the resounding and sometimes cacophonous nature of the Australian landscape. His re-contextualisation of acoustic spaces in natural and urban environments illustrates soundscapes of the past.

The disappearance of verbal and vocal street dialogue has been replaced with muted voices. The loss of this acoustic soundscape in the urban environment has evolved in the time that Rue’s work has focused on documenting these sounds. He maintains that these acoustic qualities have dropped: “Now this oral tradition is dead,” says Rue, “and the democracy in politics has changed”. 16  He bemoans the loss of the sound of live bells ringing and of people spruicking and yelling from the city spaces. “People now seem to only react or vocalize in anger such as road rage.” 17,says Rue.

Rue captured a period in Australian democratic history illustrating freedom of speech by public speakers in Sydney’s Domain. I’d like to play you an example of these recordings, which now document sounds of public debate, which are no longer alive in Sydney’s public spaces.

[Play short expert from Rue’s radiophonic works for ABC’s Listening Room.]

Schafer’s notion that: “Noises are the sounds we have learned to ignore.” 18 Is the essential nature of Rue’s investigation into incidental sounds. He finds unconscious impressions in urban and rural environments and brings them to the fore, synthesizing and reintegrating them into audio compositions. He has recorded minute sounds of the water around the foreshores of Sydney Harbour, its nuances when the tide comes in, overlappings of the water and tidal splashes. ”All of the sounds we tend to overlook”. 19

“Now you get a lot of noise of cars in recordings. Sometimes in Darling Harbour you’ll hear a low drone pitch of the traffic permeating everything, with industrial drones collectively droning.” Amidst this haze of noise…”people have personalized sound spaces with iPods and are living quite internally.” 20

In 1930 when John Cage had just dropped out of Pomona College in Claremont and had not yet written his first compositions – in which incidentally, he used mathematical formulae, Australia’s Jack Ellitt was at his Sydney home composing Australia’s first pieces of musique concrete using ¼ inch audio tape. In 1935 Ellitt wrote on the practice of contemporary sound art: “When good recording apparatus is easily acquired, many people will record simple everyday sounds which give them pleasure. The next step would be to mould these sound-snaps into formal continuity” 21

Here is a short excerpt from Ellitt’s seminal work: “Journey #1”. Re-discovered and released by Clinton Green’s Shamefile label only last year on a compilation entitled Artifacts of Australian Experimental Music 1930- 1973:

[Play 1 – 2 minutes: “Journey #1”: Artifacts of Australian Experimental Music 1930- 1973.]

It was Murray Schafer the Father of the soundscape who said: “In addition to our ears and voices we have today, an instrument which can be used to assist in reclaiming the abilities of aural discrimination” .. He was talking about the tape recorder, he went on to say “With this device sounds can at last be suspended, dissected, intimately investigated. More than that, they can be synthesized and it is in this that the full potentiality of the tape recorder is revealed as an instrument uniting impression, imagination and expression” 22

Rue works with analogue and digital technologies, and uses a range of audio formats including ¼ inch tape, minidisc, CD and audio-cassette tape; to build soundscapes and audio collages for sound installations, radiophonic pieces and live performances. Rue’s music is also on solo CD and collaborative tape and CD releases, dance and film sound tracks and other multi-media productions. His solo and collaborative works have been broadcast and performed throughout Australia, Europe, Japan and U.S.A.

I’d like to show a piece conceived by Rik Rue and which also involves sound artists: Julian Knowles, and Shane Fahey. The work is entitled Spatial Circumference, and was originally conceived as a multimedia piece.

This piece consists of spatial surround sound recordings in coastal and rainforest regions on the south coast of NSW, spot source recordings, and tuned resonance modeling synthesis. It was originally conceived as a multimedia piece, and was made in conjunction with video recordings by video artist Peter Oldham recorded at the same beach and rainforest locations the audio recordings were taken from.

The concept for the recording process involved an investigative undertaking to produce a sonic expression of rich and evocative habitats. In order to follow this venture through, concerted and repeated contact with the environments was required. In this way awareness and presence was built, carrying through into the compositions. At this point in his evolution as an artist Rue embraced the opportunity to work with moving image. He said: “If you don’t give people something to look at, they don’t listen” 23

[SCREEN: Spatial Circumference DVD or quick-time file- mins?]


It’s difficult to pinpoint the birth of radio. Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831. Without this discovery Samuel Morse could never have devised the telegraph wire carrying pulses of electrical currents to send his 1844 telegraph message: “What Has God Wrought?” on his telegraph wire running from Washington to Baltimore. Many other contributions to the evolution of the medium took place through the ensuing years. Marconi’s ‘wireless telegraphy’ was the invention of wireless transmission of data using the entire frequency spectrum to transmit long distance signals.

Similarly, whilst Australia’s first radio test broadcasts were conducted as early as 1919, it wasn’t until 1923 that Radio Station 2SB in Sydney broadcast Australia’s first licensed radio transmission. The Baritone, George Saunders, was the stations first announcer.

In 1930, in the midst of the Great Depression, Australia engaged with mass media on an un-precedented scale. These were the golden years of radio. They were hours and days filled with radio dramas, advertisements for soap and nylon products, big band music and trad. Jazz, live variety shows and the earliest forms of radiophionic sounds born from studio foley techniques.

The transmission of radio frequencies was a quantum leap from the transfer of signals along a wire. Now Australians had a medium, which was totally pervasive and available in every quarter of daily life. For the first time ever, audiences listened to national and international news. With the deepest regret, British Prime Minister Menzies announced the onset of war. British royalty was fetishised. Australian humor, first captured in early silent films, re-emerged and the ‘Australian larrikin’ was re-born. Comic performers like Jack Davey and George Wallace and game shows like Pick-a-Box lifted the spirits of a nation undergoing profound societal change.

Radio broadcast was making considerable changes to Australian society during this time and as a domestic social event, entire family groups would gather around a radio set for communal listening, even taking turns wearing headphones and narrating the events to the rest of the group. However, during the depression access to radio equipment was restricted to those of comfortable means.

In 1934, a small structure was built in Sydney’s Foley Park in the suburb of Glebe, to house a wireless set donated by the large Australian department store: Grace Brothers. Few people could afford to buy a wireless set at that time. This public place provided access to radio broadcasts for local people.

The site: Now known as Wireless House is a small structure located in the middle of inner Sydney in Foley Park, Glebe. The radio operated from 10:00 am to 10:50 pm, seven days a week. As far as local historians can tell it was and is the only site in Australia of its kind. Oral accounts of the site recently recorded have maintained that the Wireless House operated until the early 50’s.

The Wireless House was revolutionary in that it catered to large crowds including many unemployed, who congregated to enjoy the daily programs. The initiative, although hailed as unique in Australian municipal history, attracted criticism from the church and sporting organisations, both sharing concerns about a loss of patronage. The Wireless House eventually succumbed to accusations that it encouraged the unemployed to idleness and was subsequently de-commissioned.

In a new push to revive the city’s public spaces, Sydney’s City Council approached sonic artist Nigel Helyer, to reinvigorate the structure and acoustic space that became silence with the passing of Radio’s heyday. The NFSA’s holdings of Early Radio recordings broadcast from the early thirties to the late 40’s are very good and provided a natural fit as a source of content for this collaborative project.

Helyer has devised a location sensitive installation, which connects the contemporary notions of wirelessness and to the original notion of the wireless. Using a wifi zone in the park, with free internet access, Helyer and the NFSA have curated around 200 early radio recordings to be delivered from the site with interlocking layers of media technology.

[Diagram of Helyer’s design for Wireless House]

These layers or platforms will be: 1. Blue tooth frequency transmission of small fragments of audio and text files as size is limited for audio technology. These signals will be received by mobile phones with blue tooth reception. 2. A web site with more comprehensive image and text based delivery of the material, which can be accessed from anywhere. This platform will have the most contextualization of the material possible. 3. At the site itself material will be broadcast from speakers, which will be integrated into the structure. A passive infra-red detector will signal movement on the site and trigger the random selection of audio housed on a hard drive located in the structure.

[Show image of architectural structure Courtesy Nigel Helyer]

He has designed Antenna radiation patterns using 6mm thick circular panels of stainless steel. Bullet-proof perspex over the entrance to the structure will protect the electrical equipment and a period wireless which will sit again on the original wooden wireless stand. The interior will be lit as a feature of the structure

Helyer’s concept draws on the former function of the building as a Public Listening Room. The approach is to repurpose the site to once again become a sonically active feature of the park offering continuous sonic and visual interaction. The transmission of randomly selected files from the database’s playlist resembles cyber technology as a radio jukebox. Virtual soundscapes in an urban space.

‘The telephone has morphed into a wireless miniature of itself’, [1], so too has radio which is now synonymous with all forms of internet media. In his book: Virtual Music, William Duckworth discusses the work of sonic artist Max Neuhaus who like Helyer, holds a fascination for the application of radio frequencies to sonic art and for ‘utilizing public utilities in the service of art’. Duck worth writes about an installation built by Neuhause in New York in 1966, where he ‘combined a radio station with a telephone network to form a “two-way aural space”’. [2]

Neuhaus described this ‘broadcast/telephone concept as an “activity” rather than a finished work of art’. Helyer too sees his piece as a continuous non-liner stream of interactivity. Helyer is investigating the notion of public and private space. He is re-contextualizing the lost resonances and forgotten folklore of the urban domain.

The intervening six decades have wrought extraordinary changes in our attitudes to and acceptance of broadcast media and the fact that the Wireless House has survived intact, albeit mute, for over sixty years is equally extraordinary. Helyer’s “audio portrait’ of the Glebe community will give cultural history back to local people.

Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote in 1851: ‘”It is a fact…that, by means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating thousands of miles in a breathless point of time?” [3]  Art is essential to maintaining a flow of breath back to our earliest stories. While technologies have taken our interactions into new realms, Australian society still has much to learn, particularly from its native owners, the Aboriginal people, aural traditions are the resonating fabric of the ever evolving acoustic ecologies of our world, by harnessing these sonic frequencies, the contemporary sonic practitioners of our time are enriching societies and refining our cultural self- awareness.

Thank you


  1. M.Schafer, The Tuning Of The World (A.Knopf, Inc., 1977) p.3.
  2. M.Schafer, The Tuning Of The World (A.Knopf, Inc., 1977)


  1. M.Schafer, The Tuning Of The World (A.Knopf, Inc.,1977)


  1. “There is Music in Every Sound.” Thoreau’s Modernist Understanding of Music. Written by J.Bock,, : p.3. 09/12/08
  2. “There is Music in Every Sound.” Thoreau’s Modernist Understanding of Music. Written by J.Bock,, : p.3. 09/12/08
  3. “There is Music in Every Sound.” Thoreau’s Modernist Understanding of Music. Written by J.Bock,, : p.4. 09/12/08
  4. Bandt, M. Duffy, D. MacKinnon, Hearing Places, Sound, Place, Time and Culture, (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007) p.39
  5. Bandt, M. Duffy, D. MacKinnon, Hearing Places, Sound, Place, Time and Culture, (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007) p.39
  6. Bandt, M. Duffy, D. MacKinnon, Hearing Places, Sound, Place, Time and Culture, (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007) p.41.
  7. J., Blue Mountains, Australia, 14/08/07.
  8. Wikipedia
  9. Wikipedia:
  10. 14/12/2008.
  11. Taylor, Post Impressions: a travel book for tragic intellectuals, (Twisted Fiddle, 2007) p11.
  12. M.Schafer, The Tuning Of The World (A.Knopf, Inc., 1977) p.111.
  13. R., Sydney, Australia, 15/12/08.
  14. R., Sydney, Australia, 15/12/08.
  15. M.Schafer, The Tuning Of The World (A.Knopf, Inc., 1977) p.4.
  16. 4.
  17. R., Sydney, Australia, 15/12/08.
  18. R., Sydney, Australia, 15/12/08.
  19. Green,: Shamefile Music: 14/12/08.
  20. M.Schafer, The Tuning Of The World, (A.Knopf, Inc., 1977) p.154.
  21. R., Sydney, Australia, 15/12/08.
  22. Duckworth, Virtual music: how the web got wired for sound (Routeledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2005 p. 103.
  23. Duckworth, Virtual music: how the web got wired for sound (Routeledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2005 p.105.
  24. Duckworth, Virtual music: how the web got wired for sound (Routeledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2005) p. XI.